PENERAPAN EKOLOGI UNTUK MEWUJUDKAN PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

Wiryono, Wiryono (2015) PENERAPAN EKOLOGI UNTUK MEWUJUDKAN PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN. In: Seminar Nasional Menuju Pertanian Berdaulat, 12 September 2012, Bengkulu.

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Abstract

Agricultural revolution that started ten thousand years ago has changed drastically the surface of the earth. Many natural ecosystems have been converted into farm lands or agroecosystems. The fundamental change brought about by agriculture is the simplification of ecosystem structure which in turn causes the reduction of ecosystem functions or services. High diversity of plants and animals in natural ecosystems has drastically reduced into several, even single species plantation. The abundance of one species of crop in monoculture and the absence of predators increase the number of pests, so farmers have to use synthetic pesticides to control them. The disruption of material cycle in monoculture reduces the replenishment soil nutrient, so farmers must use inorganic fertilizers. Applying a large amount of synthetic pesticides and inorganic fertilizers to the crops and the soil, agriculture is the main source of environmental pollution. The use of water excessively for irrigation and the clearence of forest in steep land for farm land cause detrimental hydrological impacts. Agriculture also causes soil degradation. The agricultural practices that drastically change ecosystem structure are not sustainable and must therefore be replaced by sustainable agriculture based on ecological principles. Agroecosystem must be brought back closer to natural ecosystem by: (1) increasing ecosystem structure through increasing the diversity of species and growth form of plants and increasing landscape heterogeniety, (2) improving material cycles and (3) conserving soil and water. Bringing back agroecosystems to natural ecosystems will bring back ecosystem functions and reduce the detrimental environmental impacts of agriculture.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Agriculture > Department of Forestry
Depositing User: 021 Nanik Rahmawati
Date Deposited: 21 Apr 2015 09:55
Last Modified: 21 Apr 2015 09:55
URI: http://repository.unib.ac.id/id/eprint/10798

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